Centre for Anaesthesia and Cognitive Function
The GRAIL Study will:


Document the prevalence of Pre-existing cognitive impairment in patients presenting for Extra-corporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) for the treatment of kidney stones.


Prospectively monitor cognitive function through procedural interventions


Assess the impact of subsequent interventions on cognitive function


Relate clinical cardiac risk factors to Pre-existing cognitive impairment



Participants will include people who are:


50 years of age or more


Scheduled for Extra Corporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)




An assessment of memory and thinking will take place before the angiography, and then at discharge from hospital, one week and three months post angiography.